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Jeep Project CJ-7

An ongoing Budgeted Rebuild/Build up of a Rock
Crawling Machine.

Offroaders Guide to Gearing up for Offroad
From Basic Equipment to Well Equipped.  An extensive list guide to help you prepare your vehicle for the offroad.

Trailering Safety and Trailer Hitch Information

Off-Road Truck Driving Techniques and Safety

25 Top To Do Tips Before Going Offroad


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Spyware & Viruses? feels your pain. Let our Geeks help you...


Rausch Creek
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Jeep Central
From Jeep History to Tech Specs and Projects.  This section is all about Jeeps.
Jeep Technical Info
Engine Swaps

Installing 23,000 Volt Offroad Lights

Onboard Air
Converting a York
AC Compressor
to Pump Air

What are HID Lights?

Onboard Air
Converting a York
AC Compressor
to Pump Air

Warn 9500i Winch Installation

Warn X8000i
Winch Installation


HEI Ignition
Installation & Review

Lockers, Limited Slips &
other Differentials Explained




Wheeling in the Valley of the Ferns

1.jpg (70086 bytes)
Tellico North Carolina

Paragon Adventure Park
Rock Krawl

Thousands more photos here..»





Bolt Identification
Bolthead Markings
Bolt Torque Specs

Most bolts are stamped with either a number (metric bolts) or a series of lines (American bolts also known as fractional bolts).  These numbers or markings indicate their minimum strength or, technically speaking, their property class.   In addition to these markings, most reputable bolt manufacturers will also stamp their trademark in the head of the bolt, which allows for easy identification and accountability.  In most cases, bolts used in machinery are made to SAE standard J429, and bolts used in structural applications are made to ASTM standards.  However not all bolts are stamped.  As an example, the hardware manufactured for OEM purposes do not require markings.  The importance of what is stamped on the head of a bolt relates to the job the bolt will do.  First if a bolt is a replacement of an existing bolt you wouldn't want to substitute the bolt for a weaker bolt compromising strength.  Another reason is if you know the property class of an existing bolt and you know its diameter, you can determine the suggested basic torque setting, even if you don't have a reference to the original torque recommendations.  Typically replacing a lower grade bolt with a stronger bolt is generally acceptable however there are instances when a lower grade bolt is used to handle certain types of loads that might shear a harder bolt.  If quality and strength is a concern, stick with marked bolts.


Visual ID Description Material Tensile Strength
No lines
SAE Grades 0-1-2
Low Carbon Steel 65,000 p.s.i.
3 Lines -
Automotive and
AN Bolts
SAE Grade 5
Med. carbon steel
120,000 p.s.i.
4 Lines -
Automotive and
AN Bolts
SAE Grade 6
Med. carbon steel
Quenched &
140,000 p.s.i.
5 Lines -
rarely used
SAE Grade 7
Med. carbon alloy
140,000 p.s.i.
6 Lines -
N.A.S. & Aircraft
SAE Grade 8
Med. carbon alloy
steel Quenched
and tempered
150,000 p.s.i.
Supertanium Special alloy
Quenched &
160,000 p.s.i.
Med. Carbon
alloy steel
Quenched &
150,000 p.s.i.
Socket head
cap screw
Also N.A.S.
High carbon
Quenched &
160,000 p.s.i.
N.A.S. 144
High carbon
Quenched &
160,000 p.s.i.
N.A.S. 624
High carbon
Quenched &
180,000 p.s.i.
No number
assigned steel
High carbon
Quenched &
220,000 p.s.i.




  Grade 1 or 2
Grade 5
Grade 8
Special Alloy
Diameter (inch)
and minimum
tensile Strength (P.S.I.)
to 1/2" - 69,000
to 3/4" - 64,000
to 3/4" - 120,000
to 1" - 115,000
to 1" - 150,000 to 1" - 185,000
Bolt Size & Thread Pitch

Torque (foot/lbs) for plated bolts with clean, dry threads

1/4-20 6 10 12 14
-28 7 12 15 17
5/16-18 13 20 24 29
-24 14 22 27 35
3/8-16 23 36 44 58
-24 26 40 48 69
7/16-14 37 52 63 98
-20 41 57 70 110
1/2-13 57 80 98 145
-20 64 90 110 160
9/16-12 82 120 145 200
-18 91 135 165 220
5/8-11 111 165 210 280
-18 128 200 245 310
3/4-10 200 285 335 490
-16 223 317 370 530
7/8-9 315 430 500 760
-14 340 470 550 800
1-8 400 650 760 1130
-14 460 710 835 1210
Torque values shown are for high nickel-chrome Bowmalloy cap screws.  Other high-alloy cap screws may not have the same values.  Always use the manufacturer's specifications if they do not agree with this chart.
A Bolt must be torqued  properly before it's optimum strength can be realized.  Torqueing also maximizes the elasticity of the bolt to keep the fastener from loosening up on it's own.  Over torqueing can ruin this elastic effect.  When using lubricated threads, reduce torque values by the following amounts...45% when using anti-seize compound, 40% when using grease or heavy oil, 30% with graphite and 25% with white lead.  Increase torque values by 5% for unplated bolts.  Always use manufacturers torque specifications if they do not agree with this chart.  

Jeep Project CJ-7

An ongoing Budgeted Rebuild/Build up of a Rock Crawling Machine.

All Terrain 
Mud Terrain
Tire Reviews & Info

All Terrain
AT Tire Reviews

Mud Terrain
MT Tire Reviews



Ramp Travel Index
RTI / Ramp Travel Index What it is and how to calculate it, with and without the ramp.

Offroad Tire Info
P-Metric Tire Sizes Conversion to Inches
Tire Terminology
Wheel Terminology
How to Pick the Right
Tires for your Truck
Truck Tire Info
Tires - What Hits What Fits
All Terrain  Mud Terrain
Tire Reviews & Info
Mud Terrain MT Tire Reviews
All Terrain AT Tire Reviews
Super Swamper Bogger
Super Swamper SSR
Super Swamper SX
Super Swamper Vortrac
Interco IROK TSL
Super Swamper LTB
Super Swamper TSL
Super Swamper TSL Radial
Super Swamper Narrow
Interco SS-M16 Swamper
Thornbird TSl Radial
Thornbird TSl Bias
Thornbird TSL
Parnelli Jone Dirt Grip
BFGoodrich Krawler
BFGoodrich MT T/A KM
BFGoodrich MT T/A KM2
BFGoodrich AT TA KO
BFGoodrich Mud King XT
Bridgestone Dueler MT
Cooper Discoverer ST
Cooper Discoverer STT
Cooper Discoverer ST/C
Federal Couragia MT
Firestone Destination AT
Firestone Destination MT
General Grabber MT
General Grabber AT2
Green Diamond Icelander
Ground Hawg Mud Tire
Hankook Dynapro MT
Hankook Dynamic MT RT01
Hercules Terra Trac MT
Hercules Trail Digger MT
Kelly-Springfield Safari DTR
Kelly-Springfield Safari MSR
Kumho Road Venture MT
Kumho Road Venture KL71
Kumho Road Venture AT
Dick Cepek Mud Country
Dick Cepek F-C II
Dick Cepek Fun Country II
Dick Cepek Fun Country Nylon
Dick Cepek Fun Country Kevlar
Mastercraft Courser MT
Mastercraft Courser HTR
Mastercraft Courser HTR Plus
Maxxis BigHorn Radial
Maxxis Creepy Crawler
Maxxis Trepador
Maxxis Buckshot Mudder
Maxxis MA-SW
Maxxis M-8080 Mudzilla
Maxxis MT-754 Buckshot
Maxxis MT-753 Bravo
Maxxis MA-751 Bravo
Maxxis MA-S2 Marauder II
Maxxis MA-S1 Marauder
Maxxis MT-762 BigHorn
Nitto Mud Grappler
Nitto Terra Grappler
Nitto Dura Grappler
Nitto Dune Grappler
Nokian Vatiiva MT
Pit Bull Rocker Extreme
Pit Bull Maddog
Pit Bull Growler
Goodyear Wrangler MT/R
Pro Comp Xterrain
Pro Comp All Terrain
Pro Comp Mud Terrain
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Pro Comp Xtreme MT
Toyo Open Country MT
TrXus Mud Terrain
TrXus STS All Terrain
Michelin LTX A/T²
Michelin LTX AT2 Press
Michelin LTX AT2
Mickey Thompson MTZ
Mickey Thompson MTX
Mickey Thompson Baja Claw Radial
Mickey Thompson Baja Claw Bias
Mickey Thompson Baja Crusher
Mickey Thompson Baja ATZ Radial SLT
Competition Claw
Dunlop Mud Rover
Federal Couragia M/T
Nitto Dura Grappler
Yokohama Geolandar
Dick Cepek's 2008 F-250 Super Duty Project Vehicle – Project CRUSHER
Mud Tire Reviews
Product Reviews
Tire Reviews
ATV Tire Index
Carlisle 489 Titan
Dunlop Quadmax
Dunlop Quadmax Sport
Quadmax Sport Development
Highlifter Outlaw
ITP Holeshot
ITP Holeshot MX
ITP Holeshot ATR
ITP Holeshot XC
ITP Holeshot XCR
ITP Holeshot MXR
ITP Holeshot XCT
ITP Mud Lite
ITP Mud Lite XTR
ITP Sandstar
Kenda K538 Executioner
Tubeless Bearclaw K299
Kenda Klaw K532
Kenda Klaw K533
Kenda K534 Sand Gecko
Maxxis M961/M962 Mud Bug
Maxxis Rooster Paddle Tire
Maxxis M917/M918 Bighorn
Maxxis M966 Mudzilla
Super Swamper TSL ATV
Super Swamper TSL Vampire
Super Swamper Vampire EDL
Swamp Lite ATV Tires
ATV Tire Mounting
ATV / Quad Links
Quad Tire Reviews Index


Off-Road Lights
by LightForce Product Review / Installation.
from Off-Road Lights


Jeep Dana 300 TeraLow - 4:1 Gearset for the Dana 300 Transfer Case

Jeep Trans Swap
T-18A Transmission Rebuild & Short Shaft Conversion

Black Diamond Suspension Lift install for CJ-7


From the
Department of Cheap   Tricks and Useful Tips

Ultra-Cool Hand Throttle for Free!

Jeep V8 Swap Tips

The Exploding Clutch

Radiator Protection using 6 bucks worth of material

Cracked Under Pressure - Fixing a smashed fingernail

A Cheap, effective alternative to undercoating

Home-built Saginaw Gearbox Brace for the cost of lunch!

Ammo Box Storage - Mounting Them for Quick Disconnect

Home-built Serious Skid-Plate protection for the Oil Pan for under 20 bucks!